Purpose of Assessment?
|Diagnose knowledge and skills|
|Diagnose application of skills|
|Diagnose strengths, needs, and patterns of change|
|Provide feedback on self-assessment|
|Help regulate own learning|
|Provide feedback on goal setting|
|Offer a basis for instructional placement|
|Give a basis for promotion or graduation|
|Inform and guide instruction|
|Communicate learning expectations|
|Motivate, focus attention and effort|
|provide data for site-based management and district or
state decision making|
|Gauge program effectiveness|
Berkowitz's, From Indicators of Quantity to Measures
of Effectiveness (1994)
Assessment. Measures "where we are in relation to
where we should be?" Many consider it the same as Formative
Evaluation. Determines "how well did we do what we
set out to do?" Evaluation is tied to stated goals and
objectives. Many equate this to summative evaluation.
Note: Many use the terms assessment and evaluation the
same, referring to each as being formative or summative.
Formative Evaluation. "Where we are in relation to
where we should be?" Done along the way to assess progress and
improvement and areas of difficulty. Timelines, checkpoints, conferences,
self-assessment, and peer-assessment are often used. This type of
assessment can be done informally and need not use traditional instruments
such as quizzes and tests.
Summative Evaluation. "How well did we do what we
set out to do?" Done at the end of a unit to determine if
the objectives were achieved. This type of assessment tends to be
formal and use traditional instruments such as tests and quizzes.
Authentic Assessment. Not a precise term. Best
described by outlining key characteristics of the assessment:
|Open-ended to allow many different approaches and products|
|Based on important concepts|
|Consistent with local and state guidelines|
|Based on real-life experiences|
|Takes into account developmental level and prior knowledge|
|Demands high level thinking|
|Students synthesize and use learning to create new ideas|
|Students work through the process of building understanding|
|Nurtures complex thinking and reflection by students on own learning|
|Allows students access to tools and resources during assessment|
In authentic assessment tools such as portfolios and performances, students help decide what is important. Assessment becomes a learning experience in itself. Progress as well as final achievements is valued. Collaboration and flexible use of time may be permitted. Students are assessed against a criterion, not a norm.
Performance Assessment. The learner performs a behavior to be
measured in a "real-world" context. It requires authenticity in stimuli, task complexity, locus of control, motivation, spontaneity, resources, conditions, criteria, standards, and consequences. The learner demonstrates the desired behavior in a real-life context and the locus of control is with the student.
Benefits of Authentic Assessment:
|Increase thinking skills and reflection through things such as
|Learning logs where students keep their notes and reflections in two columns on a sheet|
|Progress logs - success in finding appropriate information|
|Encapsulation (demonstration of understanding from day’s lesson)|
|Research log with goals daily|
|Reflection to peer|
|Visualization of important points on topic|
|Process log with reflection points|
|Thoughtful research products|
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Assessment and the Library Media Specialist
Classroom teachers assess the product, the content, and the process
(both formatively and summatively). Library media specialists can be involved in
formative assessment of product and process. The library media
specialist probably does not do summative evaluation on his/her own but may help teacher develop or provide input.
To develop an evaluation or assessment plan, answer the following questions:
|What do we want students to know and be able to do?
|What will count as acceptable performance? Models of acceptable performances are useful to students|
|How can we ensure expert judgments? Rubrics are one technique.|
|How can we provide feedback?
|Opportunities for revision|
Assessment Strategies: Process (information seeking, groupwork, independent learning, work habits)
|Performance task list|
Content (subject knowledge)
|Select response, i.e. objective test|
|Performance task list|
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The Library Media Specialist and Assessment of Process
|Use of time (pacing)|
|Use of sources (and order of use)|
|Use of Library Media Center resources|
Written summaries by students, creation of a timeline, use of a flowchart, and individual
conferences are effective, informal assessments of process. Each of these can be used to identify problems, recommend strategies, and assess use of sources.
Personal contacts with students through questionnaires, interviews, or unobtrusive observations by teacher or peers can be used to evaluate progress, pinpoint frustrations, redirect activities, provide nurturing, or self-assess. They can be used as diagnostic or formal assessment.
Portfolios offer a great deal of potential to engage students because they
direct their own work, set learning goals, select works to highlight
skills, and writing the introduction and reflective pieces. Typically,
they are evaluated with rubrics incorporating descriptive phrases rather than evaluative comments.
When assessing portfolios, consider:
|Framework of portfolio
|Clarity of goals|
|Achievement of goals|
|Students’ assessments of their own progress|
|Depth of thought in reflective statements|
|Comparison of content of each piece to standard of excellence|
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Performance assessment checklists are tools used to evaluate different components of work. They may be a generic list for a format (e.g., poster, multimedia product) or tailored to specific content of task. These lists use numbers to help in grading.
They may be created and/or used by teachers or the students themselves. One of the goals of many teachers is to help students learn to self-assess. These performance assessment lists can incorporate content, process, and product skills and work habits. From the examples, you can see different descriptions of quality for different levels. For older students you can indicate relative importance of different items with the number of points assigned to each.
For these to be most successful, it is useful to provide examples of excellent performance (models) to allow students to compare their work with peers' work.
Rubrics are categories of descriptive statements for exhibitions, performances, portfolios. They indicate a continuum of quality with narrative for each level on the scale. This narrative description of performance helps all view criteria the same way, from students to peers to the teacher.
If well developed, different teachers can view the same project and grade it the same way using the rubric. They are good for self-assessment and, ideally, should be available when students start work on a project. Rubrics should not be numerically average. They provide more holistic grading than performance assessment lists.
Rubrics may be weighted depending on the importance of different aspects. Some aspects may count more for in specific assignments if the same rubric is used repeatedly for different assignments.
Creating Effective Rubrics
|Learning Target. Clearly stated, focuses on student learning objective rather than teacher activity, meaningful and important target|
|Skill Assessed. Clearly presented, can you "see" how students would demonstrate the skill in the task itself?|
|Performance Task - Clarity. Could students tell exactly what they are supposed to do and how the final product should be done?|
|Performance Task - Importance. Is the purpose of the task clear to the student?|
|Performance Task - Appropriateness.
|Essay - is the response truly up to the student?|
|Restricted response - is it fairly narrow and basically just one correct answer?|
|Extended response - is actual performance required or is it just quiz?|
Rubric - Clarity. Would students understand how they are to be evaluated? Are the criteria observable and clearly described?|
|Rubric. Appropriateness: does it work with type of task and learning target? Does it allow for several levels of performance? Does it assess skills as stated?|
Click HERE for Dr. Schroeder's Rubric for Assessing Rubrics
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